Sinead Meehan – Video Essay

My name is Sinead Meehan, I’m currently an MRes History of Art student. Although I have used digital editing for projects in the past, this project was very challenging. I wanted to use video clips to and images to demonstrate my points in a visual way, and include audio and some simple animation. This lead me to converting my own clips, re-learning how to import and manipulate sound, and edit dialogue on the few occasions that I slipped up in the middle of a sentence. I was also forced to remember that Premier Pro takes a long time to render and export on computers as unsuitable as my own. Despite these complaints, I’m glad to have had a chance to use this programme again and it has encouraged me to get my teeth back into film based concepts again.

I started by trying to define what and editor is, more for my own sake. In my field an editor usually works in relation to art publications, journals and news articles. In this way art writers and editors are partially responsible for generating a public interest for upcoming exhibitions. They also edited academic and informative books and publications about the work, connecting their ideas to other artists, concepts and movements.  I also touched on some of my own concerns surrounding documentary, as it’s a practice I am interested in. As I am equally interested in history, I often come against freedom of expression through art practice and accuracy when using history as a source. Picturing Derry (2013) and Catholic Blood (2013) were two exhibitions I used outline this. These were proceeded by a brief explanation to the context of Derry during the City of Culture festival in 2013 when these issues began to interest me. In my opinion both exhibitions are strong examples of a crossover between contemporary art and history.


Sinead Meehan, The Quiet Ones, 2014

Collaborative writing is has not been an aspect of my work so far, but collaboration has. I used the basic principles of relational and participatory art practises in current art practices to deal with this. The theory of these come quiet close to ideas surrounding the open access of information, knowledge sharing and dialogue based work practices which are often mentioned in relation to the internet and digital practices. Finally, I briefly dealth with digital skills and they power they give creators. This allows for experimentation with image, sound and video that often influences the work of many contemporary artists. Digital skills allow artists to have their voice heard online, and aloes means that any of us can easily change and manipulate this media for a variety of reasons. Context can be changed through content and new narratives can be created.

Sinead Meehan, MRes History of Art

!%*””!#*! – Orla Breslin

The only title I could think of in relation to my saga of getting my video uploaded. I have learned some valuable lessons in video file types, format, bit rate, etc.


In my video essay, I am exploring my role as I unconsciously edit in my arts practice, and edit my community practise. I am very interested in the process, the difference between arts practice, and other work. The experience of editing a Wikipedia page, has made me not just appreciate but be excited by the concept of open participatory projects. I discuss boundaries between writers and readers, and the emerging sub-culture such as DIY citizens. I mention 2 books that have influenced the way I think about modern culture, open source and social interaction. These books are part of research for my thesis. Also, I had to mention my research (yes, obsession) on textiles, and lace in particular. I’m quite excited to start thinking about my digital artefact, and the possibilities of combining digital and text/textiles. For me it was more of an exploration of digital software and possibilities, visually editing, to try and evoke, different tempos, mood, etc. Graphics, whether in print or on screen is an area I am interested in. The frame of a painting can make or break a piece, the visual frame of a digital project, can also make or break it. I used this opportunity to explore visual essays as a medium, and the tools needed: a range of digital software from photoshop to wondershare editing software, voice recording, and archive footage that was free to use. Creating and editing visual graphics so they were in context with my spoken word was difficult, producing long slow images, and then faster, more surprising graphics, as I went from talking about my arts practice to digital editing. I created some digital collages in photoshop, to create an overall impression, a visual text. It was interesting to see how delayed or overlapped still images can be made to appear animated. I enjoyed the process, and see it as a starting point of gathering information, tools, techniques, and more importantly, software I like to work with, to ultimately work towards my thesis and digital artefact.

Orla Breslin 07/12/2015


Wikipedia Entry by Bláthnaid King


My experience writing and editing a Wikipedia entry proved to be both interesting and useful. For this assignment, I focused on editing an entry on the term ‘doxing’. My reason for choosing this particular entry was that it directly relates to my chosen research interests, being that of mass negative reaction and the recipient on social media. As a great part of my research for this topic entails learning about the reasons for negative mass reaction and about the types of negative online behaviour that people engage in when participating in mass reaction, it seemed natural to edit and research this particular entry for this assignment.

According to the Wikipedia entry, (at the time of writing), doxing is defined as “the Internet-based practice of researching and broadcasting personally identifiable information about an individual.”[1] From reading the entry at the time of this assignment, I found that while it provided a satisfactory definition of what doxing is, it lacked a more rounded perspective, particularly in regards to the motivations for doxing, the common techniques a hacker may use in doxing, and the ethics concerning doxing in journalism.

Considering the purpose of this entry was to inform the reader in an unbiased manner of the topic at hand, I focused on clarifying and expanding upon the already available information. Keeping in mind that the audience of this article may not belong to any particular demographic, I felt it necessary that my addition to this entry aid in providing a comprehensive resource of information for a range of potential audiences.

[1] See: Wikipedia, Doxing,, accessed on 30/11/15

Part 1: Getting Started

Having no prior experience editing or writing in Wikipedia, I began the process by following the directions outlined in the Ten Simple Rules for Editing Wikipedia post on the PLOS website.[1] Firstly, I set up an account on the website, where I was then prompted to edit an article that was currently in need of minor work. The article in question was on Irish television network TV3.[2] I used this as an opportunity to acquaint myself with Wiki Markup Language and the elements of HTML used in writing and editing Wikipedia entries. I started simply by adding some spacing between words, as you can see in figure 1:

wiki test 1

Figure 1 displays the before and after screenshots of the spacing between words School Run, Diary of…, and Modern Ireland.

Wiki Markup was remarkably user friendly, and, as a result, I was confident enough to proceed with editing the doxing entry, after spending a short amount of time reading the lines of text and code in the sandbox.

[1] See: Logan DW, Sandal M, Gardner PP, Manske M, Bateman A (2010) Ten Simple Rules for Editing Wikipedia, PLoS Comput Biol 6(9): e1000941. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000941, accessed on 30/11/15
[2] Wikipedia, TV3,, accessed on 30/11/15

Part 2: Editing

While the importance of clear and valid citations and referencing on Wikipedia is instrumental to how it functions and remains a source of information online, I found that this was one of the most difficult factors which impacted upon the editing process.

Due to copyright issues[1], I was unable to use many of the sources that I had previously obtained in my dissertation research. This, forced me to search for other digital sources that Wikipedia would approve.

While the availability of open content coupled with the stringency of rules in place for valid citations is essential for ensuring that content is reliable, it also makes providing additional information on newer content significantly more difficult. As the term ‘doxing’ is relatively new, there were few available sources online that were useful to add to this entry. This, in turn, lead in making only minor changes to the entry.

wikidox before

Figure 2 displays the Common Techniques section prior to any editing


Figure 3 displays the Common Techniques section after editing. (edited sections surrounded by green box)


Figure 4 displays the Journalist section prior to editing


Figure 5 displays the Journalist section after editing, (edited sections surrounded by green box)


Figure 6 displays the doxing entry prior to editing


Figure 7 displays the doxing entry post editing, (edited sections surrounded by green box)

As seen from figures 2 – 7, I was able to expand on the topic considerably by adding some clearly referenced information. Expanding upon the areas of this entry that needed work allowed me to create a comprehensive resource of information for any user who may search this entry.

[1] See: Logan DW, Sandal M, Gardner PP, Manske M, Bateman A (2010), Rule 5: Do Not Infringe On Copyright, Ten Simple Rules for Editing Wikipedia. PLoS Comput Biol 6(9): e1000941. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000941, accessed on 30/11/15


I found the role of copy editor central to the editing experience, as I consistently revised and re-edited errors in grammar, vocabulary and referencing. At times, I felt the system of referencing and citation to be flawed as I outlined in Part 2. This was in relation to the difficulties I encountered concerning copyright, and in relation to clicking referenced URLs which unfortunately linked to unavailable websites.

However, what I found most exciting in my experience of editing and contributing to content in Wikipedia, was its user-friendly nature. The comprehensible style of Wiki Markup and HTML allows users from a wide variety of backgrounds and a range of different knowledge levels to edit and contribute as they please. The application of this style of coding language could allow for interesting results in other digital avenues or platforms.



Boyd, Danah, Truth, Lies, And ‘Doxxing’: The Real Moral Of The Gawker/Reddit Story,, Wired, accessed on 30/11/15

Holmes, Julia. “Copy Editors Are the Proletariat of the Publishing World.” New Republic. N.p., 3 2015., accessed on 20/10/15

Honan, Mat, What Is Doxing?,, Wired, accessed on 30/11/15

Ingram, Mathew, Of Bitcoin and doxxing: Is revealing Satoshi Nakamoto’s identity okay because it was Newsweek and not Reddit?,, accessed on 30/11/15

Ramesh, Srikanth, What is Doxing and How it is Done?, accessed on 30/11/15

Reinhardt, Damion, Rethinking The Ethics Of Doxing,, accessed on 30/11/15

Logan DW, Sandal M, Gardner PP, Manske M, Bateman A (2010) Ten Simple Rules for Editing Wikipedia. PLoS Comput Biol 6(9): e1000941. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000941

Panda, Nutan, Doxing: The Dark Side of Reconnaissance,, accessed on 30/11/15

Price, Kenneth M., Electronic Scholarly Editions,, accessed on 30/11/15

Tognotti, Chris, What is “Doxxing” And “Swatting”? You Should Know These Terms & Their Victims,, Bustle, accessed on 30/11/15

Newsweek, Bitcoin and the ethics of ‘doxxing’,, accessed on 30/11/15

Guide to doxing: Tracking identities across the web,,, Blog Blechschmidt.Saarland, accessed on 30/11/15

The Wonderful World of Wiki!

shot-20151206-1874-1p2ize8I had an exceptionally tight deadline owing to other commitments. I, unintentionally, chose a badly written article, the ‘talk’ page should have raised a warning flag or cautioned me to this, however, it was my very first attempt at editing a Wikipedia article and therefore I wasn’t taking any notice of such detail. I chose an alias. It took some time to figure out how to navigate the Wikipedia site. I flicked through many suggested pages. However, I opted to search for an interest instead. I searched a few terms mainly surrounding narration. I eventually chose the topic of ‘Organisational/Organizational Storytelling’. And I had no inkling whatsoever as to what was in store for me. I did not read the article at all. I opened Google Scholar but after some time I realised that this was a futile exercise and instead I had to run a plain Google search on each sentence or phrase. To make matters worse I was using the wrong browser, that is, internet explorer and had to opt for Google Chrome instead. The references were causing me to become distressed initially until I figured out that I had to use the Edit Source tab and just a simple opening and closing reference tag would suffice using markup language, <ref> and </ref> respectively. There were some references towards the end of the short article and they were pushed further down the line so as to include my seven citations. I am aware that you do not have to be an expert to edit an article on Wikipedia, however, I would feel rather uncomfortable trying to frame my own understanding of the topic in question following the Wikipedia framework. I would be concerned that someone would overwrite it and in this sense I would feel that my effort was pointless. I do not have an issue with collaborative writing in a closed context, however, Wikipedia is open for anyone to view or edit anytime, anywhere. I am grateful that I could remain anonymous. I am more than happy to practice citing work until I feel more comfortable formulating and expressing my thoughts on various Wikipedia topics. I used Zotero to create the citations and tagged various documents where necessary. The citations referred to a random selection of documents on the web such as a Powerpoint presentation. As you will see from the pictures one user stated that the document read like an advertising brochure in certain parts. Aside from my own personal experience I do appreciate the Wikipedia project itself. In the past and even now, the use of Wikipedia has been discouraged in educational institutes for a variety of reasons. It is seen to be inaccurate and that one must err on the side of caution. However, as I have gained an understanding of how the project actually works I would not view the project in this way anymore. Combined with a critical eye it is actually quite a user friendly, valuable and popular site and a hypertextual encyclopaedia. For me, I would have to agree with Ethan Zuckerman’s summation as follows:

‘Wikipedia is a victory of process over substance’[1]


picture no 2 wiki editing module


picture no 3 wikipedia editing module


picture no 4

picture no 5 wiki editing

-Danielle Lawlee

[1] Ethan Zuckerman.” Xplore Inc, 2015. 6 December 2015.



This post contains an embedded link of a YouTube clip based on Moovly.  It details the role of the editor and editing in relation to my research to date of my chosen topic storytelling.  It was my first attempt of using Moovly.  Editing plays a central role in storytelling particularly since we have entered a world of narrative chaos and briefly discusses the disappearance of the signature of producers and editors in favour of more control being dispersed amongst every participant in the editing process in terms of participatory culture.  The blurring of lines between the traditional roles of reader and author as a result of the emergence of digital technologies.  The nature of collaborative editing has changed and the audience are now encouraged to contribute and engage with all forms of text in an interactive way.  The clip also details where I see my research moving forward in relation to the dissertation.

Here is the Youtube html version…


Editing Wikipedia

Orla Breslin: I chose to edit the Wikipedia Page ‘Irish Lace’, to look at a few key areas the page was missing: mainly sources, citations and more in-depth history. There was only one paragraph on the origins of Lace in Ireland, and it was inaccurate. I added in 2 paragraphs on the origins of lace, with citations, sources and internal links.

What I found difficult in the editing of the content, was to only include material that could be proved, either through sources and citations. Lacemaking, especially in Ireland, still has a stigma attached to it, that of the old maid with dodgy doily’s. The difficulty was finding ‘different’ sources, to verify information about the history of Irish Lace because so little has been written about it. I didn’t want to break on of the five pillars of Wikipedia. Cite, Cite, Cite! 1. I also added a new section ‘Places to see Irish Lace’. Directly connecting to institutions, either public or private, will help people who would like to see other online resources, or physical collections in Ireland.

Registration for potential editors is recommended and very easy. Provision of a sandbox, an area to experiment and practise proved very useful. A simplified mark-up language (Creole, known as “wiki markup“), and a help of a rich-text editor, Visual Editor (VE) allows for people with very basic knowledge to become a user of Wikipedia: to write and edit pages. By using common tools, such as VE and wiki markup, information is more likely to be preserved, and possibly adapted in the future.It is much more likely that some compatible software will be available in the future, making it possible to open and edit these files.2

I have a basic understanding of html, and so, the principles mark-up language, which proved handy, because although Wikipedia does have a rich text editor, it does not tell you when things go wrong, how they went wrong. Knowledge of the principles of mark-up language is then very useful. To fully understand the workings of Wikipedia before I started to edit, I turned to YouTube. There I found several fabulous tutorials on the different aspects of editing, from setting up a user account, overall format to creating a new page. It also strengthen the feeling of Wikipedia being a community, they want you to learn, and become part of it.

It is incredibly easy to create references. Once you use the tags <ref></ref>, it automatically orders them and adds them to the Reference section. I think, without this easy method of citation, a lot of users would be put off, the time-consuming task of making sure citations are correct. There is also a very easy system for internal links, which I think is very important. However, too many links within the text is distracting. Only the major points should have internal links.

Before I began editing, I could only imagine, some of the upset that could be caused through collaborative writing of the articles. There was already some contention on the ‘Irish Lace’ page. In the Talk section there was discussion, content had been removed because “…the edits have been promotional in tone and have linked to only one website…”. I introduced myself, and why I was editing the article. I have had no feedback yet, as to the changes I have made. I decided to restrict my editing of the article, not be too enthusiast on my first go.

I will, however, return and edit more. I have also looked at several other pages related to Irish Lace, and they are all lacking in information and sources. I never would have though previously to become part of the Wikipedia community, but now I have delved into it, I find it fascinating. My over all impression has changed, from one of complacency, to one of awe. At the staggering amount of information that has been shared, of the time given by users, in trying to maintain the site. With over 3 million articles, over half a million registered users, it is worth the annual batch of controversies, edit wars and misinformation, which usually come to light eventually. Through its diligent users.

1. Logan DW, Sandal M, Gardner PP, Manske M, Bateman A (2010) Ten Simple Rules for Editing 2.Wikipedia. PLoS Comput Biol 6(9): e1000941. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000941

2. Wardrip-Fruin, Nick. ‘Acid-Free Bits’. N.p., 2004. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Print Screen before editing:

printscreen of a wikipedia page before editing

Print screen after editingprint screen of a wikipedia page after editing